Modern cars are loaded with technology to increase their efficiency and safety while driving. In the modern technological age, automobiles might feature a number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) that manage various vehicle functions.
Most cars have a single-core ECU that controls all of the engine’s operations to guarantee smooth operation, while others may have more depending on how much technology they have built-in.
The multiple sensors located throughout the car provide the ECU with all the pertinent data it requires to make judgments. Simply put, if the ECU is thought of as the brain of the car, then the sensors may be thought of as its sensory organs, feeding it information to understand what is going on around it.
In this post, we’ll examine the most typical automotive sensor types and their particular purposes:
|Oxygen Sensors||Measure the presence of oxygen in the exhaust system.|
|Engine Knock Sensor||Monitors engine knocking and adjusts ignition timing accordingly.|
|Boost Pressure Sensor||Keeps track of the pressure between the engine and the turbo.|
|Engine Oil Level Sensor||Determines how much engine oil is in the engine.|
|Engine Oil Pressure Sensor||Monitor oil pressure in the engine.|
|Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor||Determines how much air is being taken in by the engine.|
|Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor||Compares the pressures within and outside the engine manifold and measures the difference.|
|Coolant Temperature Sensor||Keeps track of the coolant temperature in the engine.|
|Coolant Level Sensor||Inspects the engine cooling system’s coolant level.|
|Sensor for Air Intake Temperature||Determines the air’s temperature at the air intake.|
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For an internal combustion engine to operate effectively, the optimal air/fuel ratio is 14.7:1. This means that 14.7 grams of air must be present in the combustion chamber for every gram of fuel to burn.
O2 sensors, commonly referred to as oxygen sensors, keep an eye on the amount of oxygen in a vehicle’s exhaust system. The ECU receives this information and modifies the air/fuel mixture to make sure the engine is operating as effectively as it should.
Engine Knock Sensor
An engine can suffer significant damage from an engine knock. When the air-fuel mixture ignites prior to the ignition phase, the 4-stroke engine cycle becomes unbalanced and knocking ensues.
The knock sensor keeps an eye out for any unexpected vibrations brought on by uneven detonation. The ECU then use this knowledge to modify the ignition timing, preventing knocking and maintaining smooth operation of the engine.
A malfunctioning knock sensor can lower performance and economy and, if left unchecked, can seriously harm an engine.
Boost Pressure Sensor
Only vehicles with forced induction, such as turbocharged or supercharged cars, are equipped with boost pressure sensors.
Their main job is to measure the pressure difference between the engine and the turbo or supercharger. This information is then used by the ECU to inject the proper amount of gasoline for the best engine performance.
These sensors, which are often found inside an engine’s intake pipes, can result in decreased performance if they stop functioning properly.
If the sensor malfunctions, you can also have difficulties starting the engine because the ECU cannot supply enough fuel for the volume of air entering the engine.
Engine Oil Level Sensor
It’s essential to maintain the proper level of engine oil in an engine as per the manufacturer’s recommendations to avoid serious engine damage.
A lack of engine oil can result in decreasing levels of lubrication in the internal combustion engine’s (ICE) components, which causes a lot of wear and tear. The temperature of the engine may rise so much as a result of the increased friction between the moving parts that an engine may completely seize.
The engine oil warning light that you typically see on the dashboard of most automobiles is connected to this sensor, which is typically positioned on the side of the oil pan. Check the level of your engine oil as soon as this light appears.
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
All ICE engines require forced lubrication systems to circulate and make sure that engine oil gets to all of the engine’s intricate parts, enabling smooth operation and extending the engine’s lifespan by preventing metal-on-metal contact.
The engine oil warning light on the dashboard is connected to the engine oil pressure sensor, which is typically found at the bottom of the cylinder head. It may also be connected to the check engine light on some automobiles.
Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor
The mass airflow sensor monitors the volume of air entering the intake as it is a component of the vehicle’s air intake system. This data is used by the ECU to calculate how much fuel it needs to inject to achieve optimal combustion. The intake filter and the intake manifold are often where you’ll find it.
Poor engine performance will follow if a vehicle’s MAF sensor malfunctions since the ECU won’t know how much gasoline to inject into the combustion chamber.
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor
The major function of the MAP sensor is to transmit critical pressure data to the engine manifold. To make sure the engine always receives enough fuel regardless of pressure variations outside the engine, it calculates the difference in pressure between the engine manifold’s interior and exterior.
In engines that are not naturally aspirated, this sensor is typically found on top of the intake manifold or in the intake track. The engine may surge or stall frequently and the mileage may decrease as a result of a bad MAP sensor.
Coolant Temperature Sensor
If you have even a passing familiarity with elementary physics, you must be aware that heat destroys efficiency. Every contemporary engine has a strong cooling system to keep the engine running at the ideal temperature for maximum effectiveness.
These systems circulate coolants to remove heat from the engine before passing them through the radiator, which reduces the coolant’s temperature once more. As long as the engine is running, this continues in a never-ending cycle.
The coolant temperature warning light on the dashboard turns on when the sensor sends a signal to the ECU informing it that the coolant is too hot. If this occurs, you need to stop right away to avoid the engine overheating and potential seizure.
Coolant Level Sensor
To keep the engine from overheating, coolants are pumped through it as was previously stated. The expansion tank or the bottom of the radiator houses the coolant level sensor, which activates a warning light if the coolant level falls below a predetermined level.
To achieve the best cooling performance and reduce the risk of engine overheating, only use the coolants the manufacturer recommends.
Sensor for Air Intake Temperature
The performance of the vehicle may be impacted by the temperature of the air entering the engine. Since cold air is denser and hence holds more molecules of oxygen, and vice versa.
Similar to the MAF sensor previously mentioned, the air intake temperature sensor is situated between the intake filter and the intake manifold.
The air intake temperature sensor and the MAF sensor are integrated into some vehicles, allowing the ECU to choose how much fuel to inject to maintain the engine operating as efficiently as possible.
You now know what the fundamental and crucial sensors in contemporary automobiles are, even though this is only the tip of the iceberg in terms of the various kinds of sensors found in a car. The ability to quickly take corrective action when something in a car is failing is made possible by sensors.
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